Tajweed idgham has several meanings in the language, and others in the terminology of the scholars of readings, and among the most prominent meanings of idgham tajweed in the language is to idgham the letter in the letter: insert it into it and join it to it.

Moreover, tajweed rules idgham in terminology: It is the meeting of a consonant letter with another vowel letter so that the two letters become one stressed letter, so the tongue rises one height if the reader pronounces them as if it were a letter, and it is the weight of two letters.

What are the two types of Idgham?

Idgham in tajweed is divided based on a number of considerations as follows:

1- idgham according to the ghunna 

A- Idgham with ghunna : It is the Idgham of a consonant letter into another vowel so that they become one stressed letter of the gender of the second, with the accompanying ghunnah, and it is if one of these letters (waw, yaa, noun, meem) occurs after the sakinah nun or tanween, such as his saying – the Almighty – : (وَمَن يَعْمَلْ).

And as He – the Highest – said: (أَمَنَةً نُّعَاسًا), and as He – the Highest – said: (مِن والٍ), and as He – the Highest – said: (صِراطاً مُسْتَقِيماً), and he pronounced it with the consonant nun and tanween with these letters while showing the ghawna.

B- idgham without a ghunnah: It is the insertion of a consonant letter into another vowel so that they become one stressed letter of the second gender, without accompanying the ghunnah, and it is if the letter lam or ra occurs after the sakinah nun or tanween, such as His saying – the Almighty -: (مِّن لَّبَنٍ), and His saying – The Almighty -: (غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ).

2- idgham in terms of kamil and Naqis

A- idgham kamil Full: This is by dropping the subjunctive letter with the same adjective, so that they become one fully stressed letter, and it is in four letters, namely: the lam, the ra, the noun, and the meem, and among its examples: His saying – the Almighty -: (مِّن لَّبَنٍ).

B- idgham Naqis: by inserting the first letter with the second letter a substance, not an adjective, such as the idgham of the ta’ in the ta’ in His saying – the Almighty -: (أَحَطتُ); It is pronounced by idgham the taa into the taa, with the adjective of the letter taa remaining.

3- idgham in view of its causes

idgham mutamatsilain: It is when the two consecutive letters are united in the way out of the mouth, and also united in the adjective, whether they fall in one word or in two consecutive words, as the Almighty said: (فَما رَبِحَتْ تِجارَتُهُمْ), and the Almighty said: (يُدْرِكْكُمُ الْمَوْتُ), It is divided into three sections:

 A- idgham mutamatsilain sagheer: The first letter is consonant and the second is a vowel, and its rule is complete idgham with a ghunna in the noun and the meem, such as: (مِن نُّطْفَةٍ), and it is without a song in the case other than the meem and the noon, such as: (فَلا يُسرِف فِي القَتلِ).

 B- idgham mutamatsilain kabir: They are every two letters that are similar, both of them are vowels, and its rule is to express, with the exception of three places in Hafs bin Assem, which are: (تَأمَنّا), so it became one noun, (مَكَّنّي), its origin is مكنني, but it was idghamet, (فَنِعِمَّا), and its origin is ف نعم ما.

C- idgham mutamatsilain mutlak

Absolute assimilation: It is the structure of two similar letters, the first of which is a vowel and the second a static, and its ruling is to Izhar, such as: (نَنْسَخْ).

 D- Idgham mutganis: The Idgham mutagenesis are the two letters that unite as a way out but differ in an adjective, such as the letters Taa’ with the Taa’ in His saying – the Almighty -: (أَحَطتُ).

E- idgham mutaqaribain: It is when the two consecutive letters are close in the exit and the adjective, and it is confined to the letters lam and ra, such as His saying – the Almighty -: (قُلْ رَبِّ), and the letters Qaf and Kaf, like His saying – the Almighty -: (نَخْلُقْكُمْ).

How many letters are there in Idgham?

The number of tajweed idgham letters is only six letters. They are Yaa. Al-Ra’ Al-Mim  Al-Lam. (The waw. (Noun. It is grouped in the word (يَرْمَلُون).

Idgham is divided into two parts:-

(1) Idgham with Ghanna: It has four letters out of the six.

(2) idgham without a ghunna: it has two letters and a idgham with a ghunna: *yaa. * the noun * the meme. * wow. A group in the word (ينمو) and this idgham is called idgham Naqis  because the letter is gone and the adjective remains. 

Idgham without ghunna  is: lam ra. This is called idgham kamil of the letter and the adjective going together

Idgham examples from Quran

1- Examples of idgham with ghunna 

The idgham with ghunna comes in four letters, which are: ya’, noon, meem, and waw, and it comes with the noun sakina or al-tanween, and examples of these are: (وَمَن يَعْمَلْ), (أَمَنَةً نُّعَاسًا), (مِن والٍ), and as the Almighty says: (صِراطاً مُسْتَقِيماً).

And it is pronounced by idgham the sakna tanween and tanween in these letters with the display of ghunnah, as the Almighty says: (مَلِكاً نُقاتِلْ), here the tanween is combined with the letter Nun with the ghunnah Izhar.

2- Examples of idgham without ghunna 

Idgham without ghunnah is in two letters only, namely: the lam and the ra’, and it is by idgham them into the noun sakinah or tanween without ghunnah, and its example is: (مِّن لَّبَنٍ), (غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ).

And it is forbidden to idgham the word (’من راق) in His saying – the Almighty said وَقِيلَ مَنْ رَاقٍ; Because of the silence on the letter N, and the silence is considered one of the impediments to idgham.

and examples of idgham without ghunnah are: His saying – the Almighty -: (أَنْداداً لِيُضِلُّوا), and it is by inserting the tanween with the lām so that they become one stressed letter without ghunnah.

3- Examples of idgham kamil 

Idgham Kamil: It is by dropping the accented letter with an adjective, so that they become one fully stressed letter.

It comes in four letters, which are: the lam, the ra’, the noon, and the meem, and among its examples: the Almighty’s saying: (فَما رَبِحَتْ تِجارَتُهُمْ), so the taa’ is merged into the taa’, so they become one stressed letter, like the second letter.

4- Examples of idgham Naqis

Idgham Naqis: It is by inserting the first letter with the second a substance, not an adjective, such as idgham the ta’ into the ta’, in the word (أَحَطتُ); It is pronounced by merging the taa into the taa, with the remainder of its adjective.

5- Examples of idgham mutamatsailain:

  • Idgham mutamatsilain sagheer: it is complete with a ghunna with the letters “noon” and “m”, and its examples are: (مِن نُّطْفَةٍ), and the small one may come without a ghunna and it is in other than the “noon” and “m”, and its examples: (رَبِحَتْ تِجارَتُهُمْ).
  • Idgham mutamatsilain kabir 

It is every two letters that are similar, both of them are vowels, and its rule is to Izhar, except in three places: (تَأمَنّا), so it became one noun. (مَكَّنّي), so its origin مكنني, but it was merged.

6- Examples of idgham muaqarbin

Idgham mutaqaribain are the two letters that converge in the exit and the adjective, or in the exit without the adjective, or the adjective without the exit, and it is divided into sagheer, kabir, and mutlak, and it is by replacing the first with the gender of the second letter. 

Its examples are: (وَقُل رَّبِّ أَنزِلْنِي), so the letter lam is merged into the letter ra, as well as the combination of qaf into the kaf, and its example: (أَلَمْ نَخْلُقكُّم), as well as the combination of lam in the lam al-shamsiya (اللَّيْلَ), and as for the Kabir, its ruling is to Izhar, like the word (عَدَدَ سِنِينَ).

7- Examples of idgham mutganis

idgham mutagenesis are the two letters that unite as a way out and differ in an adjective, and it is divided into sagheer, kabir, and mutlak, for the small is its example: (اركَب مَعَنا).

And its ruling is idgham tajweed, and as for without ghunna, its example: if they are ظلموا، يلهث ذلك، ودت طائفة so it is by idgham without ghunna, and as for the Kabir, its rule is to Izhar, as well as the mutlak.

and an example of it is the idgham mutagenic : (قَد تَّبَيَّنَ), (أُجيبَت دَعوَتُكُما), (you have expanded), (بَسَطتَ), (فَرَّطتُم), (قُل رَبِّ).

What is Idgham Naqis?

Idgham Naqis occurs when the same accented letter is gone and its adjective remains.

It is called Idgham Naqis for not completing the stress due to the persistence of the adjective of the first letter, which is the mudghm, and it is of two types as follows:

  • The letters yaa and waw are in the rulings of the noun sakinah and tanween, for the survival of the ghunnah, such as: (من يعمل) and (من وليّ).
  • Idgham of the letter Taa’a into the Ta’a’a; So that the qualities of the letter Taa remain except for the Qalqalah, which is from the idgham mutagenic and is verbally controlled, such as (بسطت), and (أحطت).

What are the Ghunna letters?

The Ghunna has two letters, the Nun and the Mim.

In conclusion, the science of intonation is one of the most important sciences that should receive great attention from a Muslim, and the science of intonation is divided into a set of rulings, and among these provisions is tajweed idgham.

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