The recitation of the Quran holds immense significance for Muslims around the world. It is not merely reading the words of Allah, but a spiritual connection and a means of seeking guidance and solace. 

To ensure the proper recitation of the Quran, the science of Tajweed plays a vital role. Tajweed encompasses a set of rules and principles that govern the correct pronunciation, articulation, and melodious recitation of the Quran… 

From learning the rules of noon sakin and tanween, meem sakin, and Qlaqalah, each type of Tajweed rule adds a unique dimension to the recitation, enhancing the rhythm and eloquence of the Quran. Read below to learn more about the different types of tajweed.

What’s Tajweed Science

Tajweed is the science and art of reciting the Quran with proper pronunciation, intonation, and rhythm. It is a set of rules and guidelines that govern the correct way of reciting the Quran. Tajweed ensures that each letter, word, and verse is pronounced accurately, maintaining the integrity and beauty of the Quranic text.

According to Quran Spirit, study of Tajweed involves learning the correct pronunciation of Arabic letters and their characteristics, and mastering the rules of elongation, pausing, Qalaqaha, etc.

Different Tajweed Rules With Examples

1. Qalqalah 

Qalqalah is an Arabic word that means shaking or vibration, and in tajweed, it refers to the echoing or bouncing sound produced in certain Arabic letters when they are in a state of Sukoon. These letters are known as the Qalqalah letters, and they include ق (Qaf), ط (ta), ب (ba), ج (jeem), and د (dal). Qalqalah is also applied in those letters when they come at the end of a word and the reciter stops recitation at this point.

Examples of the application of the Qalqalah rule in Quran

Surah Al-Falaq (Chapter 113), Verse 1: قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ الْفَلَقِ “

In this verse, the Qalqalah rule is applied to the letter ق (Qaf) in the word فَلَقِ 

Surah Al-Ma’idah (Chapter 5), Verse 89: يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُبْطِلُوا صَدَقَاتِكُم بِالْمَنِّ وَالْأَذَىٰ “

Qalqalah rule is applied to the letter ط (T a) in the word تُبْطِلُوا  

وَالشَّمْسُ تَجْرِي لِمُسْتَقَرٍّ لَّهَا ذَلِكَ تَقْدِيرُ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَلِيمِ

Qalqalah rule is applied to the letter ب (ba) in the word تُبْطِلُوا

2. Noon Sakinah And Tanween

Noon sakinah and tanween have four rules in tajweed for kids

1. Idgham

This rule occurs when a noon sakin or tanween is followed by one of those Arabic letters ي ، ر،. م، ل، و، ن In this case, The noon sakin or tanween is merged or assimilated into the following letter without any separate pronunciation.

Idgham has Two Types

With Ghunna: (nasal sound): occurs when noon sakin or tanween is followed by ي ، ن، م ، و

Examples: (وَمَن يَعْمَلْ)، (أَمَنَةً نُّعَاسًا) (مِن والٍ)

Without Ghunna: occurs when noon sakin or tanween is followed by ر، ل

Examples: (مِّن لَّبَنٍ)، (غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ)

2. Iqlab

 This rule occurs when a noon sakin or tanween is followed by a ba letter (ب). The noon sakin or tanween is changed into a “mim” sound (م) due to the influence of the following ba letter.

Example of Iqlab rule in Quran

واللهُ سَمِيعٌ بَصِيرٌ turns into والله سميعمبصير

3. Ikhfaa

When applying this rule on the noon sakinah or tanween, the articulation point (makhraj) for noon sakin or tanween shifts to near that of the hidden letter. So, the reciter makes the tip of his tongue slightly away from the gums of the upper teeth.

This rule is applied when noon sakin or tanween is followed by one of the Ikhfaa letters (ص، ذ، ث، ك، ج، ش، ق، س، د، ط، ز، ف، ت، ض، ظ).

Examples of Ikhfaa from the Quran

– ﴿ وَأَمَّا عَادٌ فَـأُهْلِكُوا بِرِيحٍ صَرْصَرٍ عَـاتِيَةٍ﴾ (الحاقة 6) 

– ﴿مَّن ذَا الَّذِي يُقْرِضُ اللّهَ قَرْضاً حَسَنـاً فَـيُضَاعِفَهُ لَهُ أَضْعَافاً كَثِيرَةً ﴾ (البقرة 245) 

– ﴿وَلَئِنْ أَذَقْنَا الإِنْسَانَ مِنَّا رَحْمَةً ثُـمَّ نَزَعْنَاهَا مِنْهُ إِنَّهُ لَيَؤُوسٌ كَـفُورٌ﴾ (هود 9) 

– ﴿وَقَالُواْ لَوْلا أُنزِلَ عَلَيْهِ مَلَكٌ وَلَوْ أَنزَلْنَا مَلَكاً لَّقُضِيَ الأمْرُ ثُمَّ لاَ يُنظَرُونَ﴾ (الأنعام 8) 

4. Izhar

The Izhar rule occurs when a noon sakin or tanween is followed by any letter from the “Izhar ” letters category ء ، ه، ع،غ، ح، خ In this case, the noon sakin or tanween is pronounced clearly without any nasal sound

Examples of Izhar from Quran

(تنحتون) ، (من حكيم)

(عذابٌ أليم) ، (وجناتٍ ألفافا)

(الأنعام) ، (من عمل)

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3. Meem Sakinah Rule

The rules of Meem Sakinah, are important in Tajweed to ensure the accurate and proper Quran recitation. These rules apply when a meem letter (م) is in the state of Succon (a diacritical mark indicating the absence of a vowel). There are three rules for the pronunciation of Meem Sakinah:

1. Izhar Shafawi

This rule occurs when a meem sakinah is followed any of the Arabic letters except م and ب

Example from the Quran

تمسون – لعلكم تتقون – عنهم سيئاتهم – ولأدخلناهم جنات – أنهم أقاموا – فوقهم ومن – منهم أمة – منهم ساء – لستم على – عليهم ولا – إليهم رسلاً – جآءهم رسول – أنفسهم فريقاً – وزادهم نفوراً – لربهم سجداً – ولم يقتروا

2. Idgham Shafawi

This rule occurs when a meem sakinah is followed by another meem. In this case, the two letters are merged with Ghunna, and the reciter should stick his lips together.

Example from the Quran

In one word: الم – المص

In two words: (أَم مَنْ) (كَمْ مِن فِئَةٍ)

3. Ikhfa Shafawi

 This rule occurs when a meem sakinah is followed by a letter ب. In this case, the meem sakin is hidden by applying Ghunna and leaving small gaps between the lips. It occurs only in two words.

Example from the Quran

(فَاحْكُم بَيْنَهُم) (تَرْمِيهِم بِحِجَارَةٍ) (وَكَلْبُهُم بَاسِطٌ).

4. Heavy And Light Letters

In Tajweed, there are two categories of letters known as “heavy” (mufakhkham) and “light” (muraqqaq) letters. These categories are based on the amount of effort required to articulate the letters. Understanding these categories is important for proper recitation of the Quran. Here are the rules related to heavy and light letters:

  1. Heavy Letters (Mufakhkham): These letters are pronounced with a greater emphasis so the mouth is full of the letter’s echo. The heavy letters are 

الطاء ، الضاد ، الصاد، الظاء، القاف، الغين، الخاء.

  1. Light Letters (Muraqqaq): These letters are pronounced with less emphasis, and they constitute all Arabic letters except the six heavy letters.
  2. Letters that can be heavy or light

Alif: this letter is subordinate to the letter preceding it. For example, if it’s followed by غ, it will be heavy like in this word غاشيّة. But in case it follows a light letter, it will be light like الناقة.

Lam:  It’s pronounced heavy in the word الله is preceded by  Dumma. like يعلمُ الله or fatha like تاًلله, and when the reciter starts with the word الله with keeping hamza light.

It’s pronounced light in the word الله if it follows kasra like in this wordبسمِ الله. It’s also pronounced light in all the words, like (الليل (يلفظ)، (هل أتى).


It’s pronounced heavy when

It’s pronounced light when

  • When it has a Dumma or Fatha over it
  • When it’s sakin and the letter preceding it has Dumma or Fatha
  • When it’s sakin and follows Dumma and is followed by a heavy letter
  • When it follows kasr arid
  • When it has a Kasra
  • When it’s sakin and the letter preceding it has kasra, and it’s followed by a light letter
  • When Ra is sakin for waqf, followed by Sucoon and comes before Sucoon Kasra
  • When ra is sakin for waqf and followed by ya sakin

Prolongation (Al Madd)

Prolongation, also known as Al Madd in Tajweed, refers to the elongation of specific letters or sounds in the recitation of the Quran. It adds beauty, rhythm, and emphasis to the recitation. There are five types of Madd but here we mention just three of them.

There are two types of Madd: 

  1. Madd Al-Tabee’i (Madd Al-Natural)

This type of prolongation occurs when a letter of those three ( ا ، و ، ى ) ) has no Succon over it. It’s natural and the duration of Madd here is two counts.

It’s required for those three letters to be prolonged to follow movements corresponding to them. alif madd should follow Fatha. Ya Madd should follow kasra and waw madd should follow Dumma.

Example: ya in the word مجيد 

بَلْ هُوَ قُرْآنٌ مَّجِيدٌ 

Mad al Badal

Here, Madd occurs when one of Madd’s letters أ، و، ى follows hamza. for example in the word آمن, the original form of it is ءآمن. notice that Hamza comes before madd alif. And in the word أوتي, the original form of it is أؤتي

Here This madd is sounded for two counts when continuing recitation or stopping after the word with the Madd.

Examples of Madd al Badal

(هَل ءامَنكُم عَلَيْه



How Long Do You Need to Study Tajweed?

The time required to study Tajweed can range from a few months to several years, depending on the intensity of the study and the individual’s learning pace. It is important to study Tajweed under the guidance of a qualified teacher who can provide proper instruction, correction, and feedback.

Remember, Tajweed is not just about theoretical knowledge but also practical application. So, dedicating time to recite and practice the rules is essential for improvement.

Importance of Tajweed 

  1. Tajweed ensures that the Quran is recited in the correct manner, with proper pronunciation, intonation, and rhythm. This enhances the clarity and accuracy of the recitation, allowing the listener to understand the words and meanings of the Quran more effectively.
  2. Tajweed plays a crucial role in preserving the original text of the Quran. Adhering to Tajweed rules, reciters ensure that they recite the Quran as it was revealed to Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and is passed down through generations. This helps to maintain the authenticity and purity of the Quranic text.
  3. Tajweed aids in understanding the meanings of the Quran. By reciting with proper pronunciation and intonation, the reciter can grasp the nuances and subtleties of the Arabic language, which is the language of the Quran. This facilitates a better understanding of the message, teachings, and guidance of the Quran.
  4. Tajweed demonstrates respect and reverence for the Quran. It shows the importance and value that Muslims place on the words of Allah. By reciting the Quran with Tajweed, Muslims honor and uphold the sanctity of the Quranic text.

Final Thought

In conclusion, understanding and applying the rules of Tajweed is essential for reciting the Quran with accuracy, beauty, and reverence. Throughout this article, we have explored some of the different types of Tajweed, such as Qlaqalah, heavy and light letters, and MADD

These rules help to enhance the rhythm and melody of the recitation, allowing us to connect with the words of Allah profoundly. However, it is important to note that Tajweed is a vast and intricate field, requiring guidance from qualified teachers and consistent practice to truly master. 

To deepen your understanding and proficiency in Tajweed, we encourage you to consider enrolling in our online Tajweed course. Our course offers comprehensive lessons, interactive exercises, and personalized guidance to help you navigate the intricacies of Tajweed and improve your recitation skills.

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