The ruling of tajweed differs in terms of meaning, letters, and divisions. Therefore, the reader of the Qur’an must familiarize himself with the meaning of each of them so that he can apply them with diligence and mastery. Also, every tajweed ruling has a reason and a clear reason for it, and after knowing it, it is easy for the reader to apply this rule, so the reason for ikhfa in tajweed is; The noon saakinah and tanween did not come close to the tajweed ikhfa letters. Like Idgham tajweed, and did not deviate from them, such as Izhar. So, these letters took a middle rule between idgham and Izhar, which is ikhfaa tajweed.
What is Ikhfa in Tajweed?
Definition of ikhfa haqiqi, as ikhfa Linguistically: concealment and idiomatically it is Pronunciation with a consonant letter, without stress, in a quality between Izhar and idgham, with the ghunnah remaining in the first letter (Nun sakinah or Tanween), and this letter is ghun in the amount of two vowels, and It is one of the rulings of the nun sakinah and tanween. Ikhfa in tajweed is a state between Izhar and idgham, so it does not match the Izhar in achieving the pronunciation of the nun completely, and it is not like the idgham that requires similarity between the slurred and the slurred in it.
Moreover tajweed ikhfa letters are fifteen letters, which are the following letters: (sad/ص- zal/ذ- thaa/ث- geem/ج- shin/ش- sin/ س- qaf/ق- Dal/د- Taa/ط- Zin/ز- faa/ف- Taa/ت- Dad/ض- zaa/ظ).
If the reader comes after the noun sakinah or tanween with one of the above-mentioned letters of lkhfaa, we apply the rule of ikhfaa by pronouncing the noun sakinah or tanween in an intermediate state between Izhar and idgham, with ghunnah in two vowels and without stress. Moreover the ikhfaa tajweed of the noon sakinah is in one or two words, while the ikhfaa of the tanween comes in only two words, and examples of the ikhfaa haqiqi are as follows:
(مَنْ ذَا الَّذِي)
The definition of ikhfaa alshafwi is the ikhfaa of the meem sakinah when the letter Ba comes after it in the next word, and it is called shafawi; Because the meem and the baa are produced by the lips, and when pronounced with ikhfaa alshafwi, the lips are closed to each other without leaving any gap between them. Examples of ikhfaa alshafwi are as follows:
(بَلْ أَنْتُمْ بِهَدِيَّتِكُمْ)
What Is Ikhfa Rules of Tajweed?
Tajweed rules ikhfa is divided into two parts; A section related to the provisions of the nun sakinah and tanween, and a section related to the provisions of the meem sakinah and tanween. As for the provisions of the nun; It is the ikhfaa haqiqi, and what is related to the provisions of the meme, which is the ikhfaa shafawi, and each of them has a definition, ranks, and letters.
1-ikfaa haqiqi: ikhfaa in language: concealment, and as for the terminology; It is the utterance with a consonant letter devoid of stress, on quality between the Izhar and the idgham, while the ghunnah remains in the first letter, i.e. the sakinah nun and tanween.
Ikhfa in tajweed occurs after the noon sakinah in a word or in two words; As for the Tanween, it only comes with two words, and an example of that is His saying – the Almighty -: (جُندٌ), the naked nun came from the movement, and then a letter from the letters of concealment, which is: (d); The verdict is a ikhfaa haqiqi.
Likewise, in His saying – the Almighty -: (يَنصُرُكُم), after the Nun (ص) and the same ruling, and these two previous examples of ikhfaa that are contained in one word. What falls into two words, whether in the nun or tanween; Because as you know, ikhfaa due to enlightenment does not occur except in two words, and an example of that is in His saying – the Almighty -: (وَأَجْرٌ كَبِيرٌ).
2- Ikhfaa shafawi, and the following is a statement of the definition of Ikhfaa shafawi, its image and how to pronounce it:Ikhfaa shafawi is defined as a type of meme sakinah rule, in contrast to the ikhfaa shafawi, which is a type of nun sakinah rule. Ikhfaa shafawi: that the letter B is after the meem sakinah, and it is only in two words, and it is named shafawi; For the exit of the ba and the meme from the lips. The face of ikhfaa: the participation of the meme and the ba in the director, and their homogeneity in the two qualities of openness and invocation.
Examples of ikhfaa shafawi in the Almighty’s saying: (عَلَيْهِم بُنْيَانًا), the naked meme came from the movement in the word (عَلَيْهِم), and then the letter Ba in the word (بُنْيَانًا), which is the only letter of the letters of ikhfaa, so the ruling here is Ikhfaa shafawi.
What Is 15 Letters of Ikhfaa?
Tajweed ikhfa letters are fifteen letters, which are the following letters: (sad/ص- zal/ذ- thaa/ث- geem/ج- shin/ش- sin/ س- qaf/ق- Dal/د- Taa/ط- Zin/ز- faa/ف- Taa/ت- Dad/ض- zaa/ظ).
It comes in three levels:
1- High Levels:
In it, the ghunna appears in a very large way in the case of ikhfaa, and that rank is close to the ghunna of idgham . This rank falls with the following letters Dal, Taa’, and Taa’, so the ghunnah becomes apparent from the sound in the letter. The reason is due to the strong ghunna in that case, because the director in those letters includes the “nun” when it is pronounced. And the “nun” comes from the delicate tip of the tongue, and the upper roots of the folds, which are represented by the upper gums of the teeth.
As for the exit letters in the letters “TA”, “D”, “T”, the gums of the upper teeth are with the tip of the wide tongue, and the exit for these letters includes the exit “N” and it is one of the parts of pronunciation when producing the letters.
When you pronounce the ghunna, the noun will be visible, especially if the noun is used in full, and the tongue is moved freely while avoiding touching the gums of the upper teeth or pulling the tongue inward, until ikhfaa is achieved, and the noon is canceled as much as possible. Do not use the entire exit for the letter that is after the “nun” until the ikhfaa of the “nun” is achieved, and the letters will be produced in the accidental way. Despite the strength they have in relation to dependence, the singing will be long and the idgham will appear in it, as if it is clear from the sound in the letters. And the tongue must stick at its end, left and right, and that is in a tight manner in the upper gums of the teeth, and thus the serenity does not become obscured, and the outlet is preserved.
2- Middle Level:
It is the letter following the nun, and all the letters are set, and in all ranks, and the individual may interfere slightly in the higher rank.
3- Lower Level:
And it is the opposite of what was mentioned in the higher rank, and the song is close to the pronunciation and the letters that the word contains are k,qaf. Among the examples that indicate it is such as (من كان) (من قبل), and the way out in those two letters is strong and strong.
In that case, the ghunna will appear in a non-lengthy way, and the letter will appear very clearly due to the strength of reliance on it, as if you perform the closeness in ikhfaa at the exit from the letter. And the ghunna will be long, so it must be found at the exit of the letter and not near it because the length of the ghunna is not present because of the letter. By this yoy can learn quran tajweed correctly and also get learn tajweed online under the guidance of quran tutors
Here are some example provided by Quran Spirit professional tutors.
1- Examples of ikhfaa haqiqi:
- Zal letter/ذ:
(أنذرناكم)، (من ذكراها)، (منذر)، (يومٍ ذي)، (مسكيناً ذا)، (فأنذرتكم)
- Sad letter/ص:
(صفاً صفاً)، (فانصب)، (عن صلاتهم)
- Thaa letter/ث:
(مآءً ثجاجاً)، (مطاعً ثمَّ)، (الأُنثى)
- geem letter/ج:
(أن جآءه)، (من جآءك)، (من جوع)
- Shin letter/ش:
(سَبعاً شداداً)، (فمن شآءَ)، (أنشره)، (يومئِذٍ شأن)، (لنفسٍ شيئاً)، (انشقت)، (شيءٍ شهيد)، (حباً جماً)، (من شر)
- Sin letter/س:
- Zai letter/ز:
(وأنزلنا)، (من زكاها)، (أنزلناه)
- Faa letter/ف:
(ينفخ)، (فتنفعه)، (انفطرت)، (كدحاً فملاقيه)، (بصيراً فلا)، (لقولٌ فصل)، (كيداً فمهل)، (راضيةٌ في)، (لاغيةٌ فيها)، (جاريةٌ فيها)، (يتيماً فآوى)، (ضآلاً فهدى)، (عائِلاً فأغنى)، (منفكين)، (أفواجاً فسبح)
- Dad letter/ض:
- Zaa letter/ظ:
- Ta’a letter/ط:
- Taa letter/ت:
كنت، (أن تزكى)، (أنت)، (منتهاها)، (انتثرت)، (من تسنيم)، (جناتٌ تجري)، (من تحتها)، (من تزكىٰ)، (من تولى)، (ناراً تلظى)، (نعمةٍ تجزى)، (يومئِذٍ تحدث)، أنتم
- Dal letter/د:
(دكاً دكاً)، (من دساها)، (عنده) القاف: (عذاباً قريباً)، (انقلبوا)، (وينقلب)، (أنقض)، (كتبٌ قيمة)
- Khaf letter/ك:
(إذاً كرة)، (انكدرت)، (رسولٍ كريمٍ)، (منكم)، (كراماً كاتبين)، (جماً كلآ)، (إن كان)، (إن كذب)، (ناصيةٍ كاذبةٍ)، (من كل أمر)
2- Examples of ikhfaa shafawi:
Ikhfa Examples from Quran
Examples of ikhfaa haqiqi
In these examples, you can practice ikhfa haqiqi and learn the correct way to pronounce the word. Among these examples mentioned in the Holy Qur’an:
- Sad letter/ص:
عَن صِدْقِهِمْ ۚ
- Dad letter/ض:
- Taa letter/ط:
- Zaa letter/ظ:
- Kaf letter/ ك:
- Dal letter/د:
- Taa letter/ت:
Examples of ikhfaa haqiqi are some other characters
It is possible to practice ikhfaa in some letters, such as the letter Thaal or Thaa’ and others, in these examples:
Some of the examples mentioned in the Holy Quran about ikhfaa shafawi are:
أم لكم براءةٌ