An Arabic sentence structure is every word, whether it is useful or not. If it is useful, it is called a useful sentence or a speech.
Regarding the great importance of learning the Arabic language, we will mention the Basic Grammar or most important components of sentences for students who want to learn the language without arabic teacher.
overview of Arabic sentence structure
The pillars of the Arabic sentence structure are the thing that it consists of, so if the words and vocabulary are weak, then the sentence becomes weak.
So it is necessary to know the way the words are organized and arranged so that the sentence becomes sound in structure, and the most important of these components are:
A noun in Basic Grammar is what indicates an event that is not associated with a time, and this indicates a lot of things except for verbs.
Any word devoid of time in the Arabic language is considered, and there are many nouns that cannot be counted in the Arabic language:
- The name of the eye is a name that denotes the name of a specific person referred to by his name, such as Muhammad, Ahmed, or Abdullah.
- And the name of the meaning is one that needs an explanation of its meaning and its meaning cannot be understood without an explanation, such as the word injustice, cooperation, sincerity, and other words that indicate meaning.
The verb in Arabic rules of grammar: denoting an event associated with a time is the event that comes associated with time, so any word that indicates a time is a verb.
Sentences in the Arabic sentence structure are divided into three categories, past tense, present tense, or command.
1- The past tense is what indicates an action that happened and ended in the past tense, such as when we say: ذهب محمد الي المدرسة.
The verb went is a past tense that indicates that the action has happened and ended.
2- The present tense is the one that indicates an action that is still going on at this time – or at the time of speaking.
For example: يذهب الولد إلى المدرسة. The action goes on continuously until the time of speaking about it, so the child’s going to school continues until the time of speaking.
3- And the command verb is not indicative of the future tense only, but rather it is indicative of the present tense as well.
The person who commands another to do a matter is asking him to do this now in the present tense, كل طعامك كله.
A letter in Basic Grammar does not indicate a meaning unless it is connected to something else. If it came alone, it does not indicate a meaning, and a noun or verb must be connected to it.
There are many types of letters, including nasib, or jazim, or jar, and all of them have their roles in the sentence Ibn Jinni defined the letter.
As: “Whatever a sign of the signs of nouns or signs of verbs does not improve, but rather a meaning in others, such as hal and bl.”
the typical word order in Arabic sentences
The sentence in arabic rules of grammar is divided according to its components into two parts or two types, which are either a nominal sentence or a verbal sentence:
The nominative sentence is defined as a sentence that begins with a noun and any noun, as we mentioned earlier, the types of nouns in the Arabic sentence structure.
- The nominal sentence depends on its formation on two basic pillars: the subject and the predicate, or the predicate, and the predicate to it, because the predicate is attributed to the predicate.
- For example, if we say: محمد مهذب, then this indicates that Muhammad is a beginner, and attributed to it the discipline, which is the news.
- For any sentence that begins with a noun, this noun expresses a noun, and it is not required that the predicate come immediately after the predicate, but it is possible to separate many words between the predicate and the predicate.
A verbal sentence in Basic Grammar is one that begins with a verb, and this verb can be past, present, or imperative.
- As for the second pillar of the sentence, it is the subject, and he is the one to whom the verb is assigned.
- If we say ذهب محمد إلى المدرسة, then the one to whom the going is assigned is Muhammad.
- As for the third pillar of the pillars of the actual sentence, it is the object, and it is the one on which the subject’s action falls. If we say ضرب المعلم الولد
- The act of multiplication is performed by the teacher, and the act of multiplication falls on the subject of it, which is the child.
Actual sentence divisions
The verbal sentence in Arabic rules of grammar is naturally divided into two parts, namely the active sentence and the passive, and the formation of the sentence and its structure differs from the active and passive construction.
The active sentence
- We mentioned that the actual sentence when it is built for the passive consists of a verb, or the past, or an order.
- And this subject is what makes the sentence built for the known, i.e. it is an act that is attributed to an apparent and known subject
- Like حضرت في الصباح: the verb is present: a present tense based on the fath, and the participle ta’a, in the morning: a plural and a dative.
Categories of the subject
A noun built like demonstrative nouns, such as: “نجح هذا الطالب” Thus, Arabizing: نجح: a past tense based on conquest, and هذا: a noun that is based on sukoon in the nominative of a subject, and the الطالب: an adjective accusative in the genitive case.
The subject in Arabic sentence structure can be a relative noun, such as: “نجح الذي اجتهد”, so it is Arabic: نجح: a past verb based on conquest, الذي: a relative noun based on sukun in the nominative place of a subject, and اجتهد: the object in it is accusative with the visible fatha at the end.
It will also be a connected pronoun, such as حضرت في الصباح: the verb حضر: a present tense based on the fath, and the participle ta’a, في الصباح: a plural and a dative.
The actual passive sentence
As for the verb in the passive sentence, the actual sentence here is omitted by the subject.
- If the verbal sentence in the accusative form is for the accusative: حضر محمد إلى المدرسة, then it becomes in the passive accusative, حُضر إلى المدرسة, by omitting Muhammad, who is the subject.
- The correct present tense is built for the passive by joining the first letter and opening the penultimate letter:, such as: “تُزرَع الأرضُ.”
- As for the hollow verb, which is the one in which there is a vowel letter in the middle, such as: “يبيع” and, then when constructing the passive the vowel is converted to the letter “alif”, towards: “يُباع،” and.
- As for the correct past tense, such as: “كَتَبَ” it is built by adding the first letter and breaking what came before the other, towards: “كُتِب الدرسُ”
nouns and adjectives function in Arabic sentences
Adjectives are one of the important methods in the Arabic sentence structure, and they come to indicate the adjective of the noun that follows it in the inflection.
And the adjective includes emphasis, allowance, and kindness, and it is called a follower, and what comes before it is followed.
Among the names of adjectives in Arabic sentence structure are also nait. As the adjective is from the triple verb describe, which is defining what the thing is with the utmost accuracy and explaining its most important features.
As for Basic Grammar, adjectives are considered one of the dependencies, and one of the derived nouns, and they are useful in describing the noun that is followed by the described.
The adjective indicates definition and specification, if both the adjective and the described are defining, in this case, the adjective indicates definition, such as saying: اشتريت الثوبَ الجديدَ في عيدِ الفطر, but if both are indefinite, then the adjective indicates specification, such as saying: اشتريت ثوباً جديداً في عيد الفطر.
The name in Arabic sentence structure is defined linguistically as a word denoting a person, an animal, or something to be inferred, and it denotes itself and is not associated with a specific time.
As for defining it idiomatically, it is according to what al-Farra’ said: “The noun does not bear the tanween, or the addition or the alif and the lam.
Relying on purely formal foundations in defining the name.” Likewise, the noun at the glass is: “the sound of a comprehensible syllable denoting a meaning that is not indicative of time or place.”
It is worth mentioning that the noun in Arabic rules of grammar has three signs: the manifestation, the pronoun, and the vague. The manifest noun is the noun that denotes its meaning without the need for a presumption associated with it and clarifies it, such as: (ليلى)
As for the pronoun, it is the noun that denotes its meaning through a presumption relating to it and explained to it, like pronouns, so we say هو كريم
As for the vague noun, it is one that we do not know or understand what is meant by it except by indicating, such as: (هذا الكتاب) or by clarifying it with a sentence after it.
Such as the Almighty’s saying:
(اللَّهُ وَلِيُّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا), so the word of majesty (الله) is the name here and a sentence (ولي الذين آمنوا) is the one that explains this name
how they are inflected to indicate case, number, and definiteness
The name of the sign in Arabic sentence structure is known as a name whose meaning is specified, coupled with a sensory sign, such as when a man sees a bird and points to it and says: “ذا” graceful.
The noun is considered built-up unless it denotes the masculine and feminine of the dual, in which case it is expressed as dual, and thus the noun is raised with the alif, the accusative, and the accusative with the ya’.
Sign names in Basic Grammar consist of three sections: what is referred to as the singular, what is referred to as the dual, and what is referred to as the plural, and these three sections are divided into masculine and feminine.
Referral names for the person nearby
Here is a collection of nouns for nearby:
- Zaa/ ذا, such as: ذا رجلٌ شريف.
- Haza/ هذا, such as: هذا كتابٌ نافعٌ.
- Zah/ ذِهِ, such as: ذِهِ امرأةٌ تعتني بأولادها.
- Hazih/ هذهِ, such as: هذه حُجرةٌ واسعةٌ.
- Zan/ ذانِ, such as: ذانِ ولدان مهذبان.
- Hazain/ هذين, such as: إنّ هذين فائزان.
- Ha’ la/ هؤلاءِ, such as: هؤلاءِ صناعٌ ماهرون.
- Hatin/ هاتين, such as: إنّ هاتين بنتان مُطيعتان.
Reference names for the remote
Here is a collection of the reference names for the remote:
- Zalik/ ذلكَ, such as:ذلك الكتابُ لي.
- Tilk/ تلكَ, such as:تلكَ الصحاري بعيدة.
- Olaik/ أولئكَ, such as:أولئكَ المغتربون قدموا من أجل الدراسة.
- Hunak/ هنالكَ, such as: هنالكَ إلى مكانٍ بعيد تُهاجر الطيور.
the way verbs function in Arabic sentences
The verb is a factor in the Arabic rules of grammar, and it is a word denoting an event related to a time, and the verb has many types, namely:
1- The past tense in Arabic sentence structure is the verb that indicates an event that occurred in the past tense, meaning that it occurred and ended, such as شرب.
The past tense is expressed as a past tense based on conquest if it comes alone or is connected to it with a static feminine form such as شرب، شربَت.
2- The present tense in Arabic sentence structure indicates an event that is still occurring, such as drink, drink, drink, drink, and we note that present verbs begin with some letters, and these letters can be combined in the word we come, meaning that every present verb must begin with a noun, a ta’, a ya’, or a hamza.
The present tense verb is expressed by raising it with the damma, i.e. a present accusative verb and a sign raised by the damma, unless it is preceded by an accusative letter such as that, anna, lin, kiy, hataa, lam ultalil, then it becomes a present accusative verb and the accusative sign is the fatha.
It can also be preceded by an affirmative letter such as “lam” or “ la al-nahiyah”, as it becomes a present tense that is accusative and the sign of its assertion is sukoon.
3- Finally, in terms of tense, the verb of the imperative is carried in its form, such as اشرب, العب, etc., and it is based on the sukoon if the verb is correct, but if it is defective, it is based on deleting the vowel from the end.
Classifications of verbs according to necessity and transgression
- The necessary verb in Basic Grammar is the one that suffices the verb to complete its meaning, and the subject is attached to a preposition such as لعب الولد بالكرة.
- The transitive verb in arabic rules of grammar is the one that is not satisfied with the subject, but rather needs an object in it to complete the meaning, like the engineer designed the house.
And we point out here that there are verbs that need two objects, and there are others that need three objects.
how they are inflected to indicate person, number, mood, and tense
Verbs in arabic rules of grammar are divided according to tense into three parts:
- Past subject: which indicates an event that began and ended in the past, such as (لعب محمد بالكره).
- Present tense: It is the verb that denotes a specific event that took place in the present time. The present tense is formulated in the Arabic sentence structure.
By adding a letter from the present tense to the beginning of the past tense, the present tense letters are: “Ya’, Ta’a, Alif, and Nun. For example (يشرحُ المعلمُ الدّرس).
- command verb: the command verb in Arabic sentence structure is the one with which the execution of an order is requested in the near future, i.e. it is the verb that takes place after speaking it and is in the manner of request or command, such as:العبْ
the typical syntactical patterns used in Arabic sentences
The Arabic sentence structure according to what Al-Zamakhshari defined, means that it is the meeting of two or more words that are linked to each other to form useful and meaningful words.
As the Basic Grammar of sentences in the Arabic language is built from the functions performed by the different types of words, such as the noun, the letter, and the verb.
So this evidence is based on two functions that are the original pillar of the sentence, namely the predicate and the predicate to it.
And Sibawayh defined them as what does not replace one of the other and the speaker is obliged to come up with them, such as the subject and the subject on it (i.e. the predicate), the verb, and the subject.
The grammarians of a speech decided that the Arabic sentence structure is formed only from a noun and a verb, or two nouns because the statement occurs when the attribution is, which must have two parties, namely the predicate and the predicate to it.
So it does not come from two verbs, no noun and letter, no verb and letter, and no word One, not two letters, and it should be noted that the sentence must have a certain meaning.
Otherwise, it is in vain, so if the words are arranged in a random manner without any connection between them, then this will not benefit anything.
were the sentences also divided according to Arabic rules of grammar into two types:
1- The nominal sentence in Arabic sentence structure is the sentence that begins with a noun or description that indicates evidence of steadfastness, and it consists of two pillars: the subject that comes at the beginning of the sentence.
And the predicate that comes after the subject to complete the meaning of the sentence and complete its usefulness, such as when we say:(أحمدٌ مهذَّبٌ)
So the subject here is أحمدٌ, and the predicate that clarifies for us the completeness of the meaning of the sentence is مهذَّبٌ. If it were not for the predicate, we would not have known what Ahmad is or what we want to inform about in relation to him.
2- The actual sentence in Arabic sentence structure defines the actual sentence as the sentence that begins with the verb, as it is the main element in it and the rest of the sentence is assigned to it.
And thus it consists of the verb, whether it is past, present, or imperative, and the subject, which is the second element of the sentence, which means what the action or event occurred.
In addition to the third element is the object subject, which is defined as “what the subject’s action occurred on.” For example, we say: (كَسَرَ الولدُ الزجاجَ).
So the verb here كَسَرَ, and it is past because it indicates that the break has occurred and ended, and the child is the subject because he is the one who did the action Breaking.
As for الزجاجَ, it is the object of it, because it is the thing on which the verb “breaking” occurred, “that is, the one that broke.”
how these patterns are used to convey different meanings
Among the Arabic rules of grammar which were stated by rhetoric scholars, is that the nominal sentence indicates constancy and stability, and it may deviate from this principle in some cases.
So it indicates occurrence and renewal as if its predicate is an actual sentence, or there is a presumption of occurrence and renewal, and its predicate is a singular or Nominal sentence.
As for the actual sentence, it is indicative of the origin of its position on continuity and occurrence, so if it begins with a verb in the present tense, for example.
It indicates the occurrence of the matter in the future, for example, or if it begins with the past verb, it indicates the occurrence of something in the past, then the difference between the significance of the nominal and actual sentence is undoubtedly clear.
further study and resources for learning more about Arabic sentence structure
Learning the sciences of the Arabic rules of grammar is one of the most enjoyable sciences that you will pass through, because of the softness of learning it, the possibility of self-learning, and the large number of resources available for that, especially Arabic sentence structure; Here are the most important books that will help you:
- Al nahou ulwadih book in Basic Grammar: the elementary stage
These book will benefit you if you are a beginner in grammar, by teaching you the information in a simplified way that suits your stage.
- A book of grammatical instructions to facilitate the Arabic language by the author Muhammad Mahmoud Abdullah.
- A book the easiest way to learn grammar rules for all stages, by author, Ibrahim Shams El-Din.
- Al nahou al tatbiki book by Hadi Nahr.
- Grammar book for beginners by the author Muhammad Kazem al-Hakim.
- Al-Wajeez book on grammar by the author Muhammad Ali Al-Hajj Al-Amili.
In the conclusion
we talked about the Arabic sentence structure, and the most important components of the nominal and verbal sentence, in addition to explaining the divisions of verbs in the arabic rules of grammar and sign nouns and their use.
And we also mentioned reference sources in Basic Grammar, in order to help students in the learning process without Arabic teacher.